Match the following questions with explanation- Series 8- (Mass Communication)

Keywords- Rostow, Shannon and Weaver, Marshal McLuhan, Herbert Spencer.

It is already solved questions and this match the following question is related with authors and their idea which were asked in previous paper of UGC-NET exams (Journalism and Mass Communication). It contains authors like ‘Rostow, Shannon and Weaver, Marshal McLuhan, Herbert Spencer. and their concepts on ‘Growth Theory, Entropy, Medium is the Message, Evolutionary Perspective’. Match the following question with short explanation is designed in order to make you understand better. So that you do not need to go to other places for search.

S. no. Authors Concept/Terms
1. WW Rostow Growth Theory
2. Shannon and Weaver Entropy
3. Marshal McLuhan Medium is the Message
4. Herbert Spencer Evolutionary Perspective


Walt Whitman Rostow

  • Walt Whitman Rostow was an American economist and political theorist1.
  • Rostow’s model is one of the most significant historical models of economic growth1
  • Rostow argued that the economies of all countries could be placed within one of five different stages of economic growth. The stages include traditional society, preconditions to take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, and age of high mass consumption2.

Entropy and Redundancy

  • The concept of information entropy was introduced by Claude Shannon in his 1948 paper “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”.
  • Entropy is a direct measure of the “amount of information” in a variable.
  • Entropy refers to messages which convey highly unpredictable information to the receiver.
  • Redundancy: the repetition of elements within a message that prevents the failure of communication of information.

Marshal McLuhan

  • Herbert Marshall McLuhan was a Canadian philosopher
  • “The medium is the message” is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan introduced in McLuhan’s book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, published in 1964. It means that the nature of a medium (the channel through which a message is transmitted) is more important than the meaning or content of the message6.
  • Marshall McCluhan coined the term “global village” in 1964 to describe the phenomenon of the world’s culture shrinking and expanding at the same time due to pervasive technological advances that allow for instantaneous sharing of culture7.
  • Marshall McLuhan created two categories: hot vs. cool media. Hot media is that which engages one sense completely. Cool media generally uses low-definition media that engages several senses less completely.
    Examples (hot media) -print, photographs, radio, and movies and examples (cool media) speech, cartoons, the telephone, and television8.

Herbert Spencer

  • Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
  • Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies.
  • Spencer first articulated his evolutionary perspective in his essay, ‘Progress: Its Law and Cause.’


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