Match the following questions with explanation- Series 7

Keywords- Donald Shaw and Maxwell McCombs, Antonio Gramsci, Wilbur Schramm, George Gerbner.

It is already solved questions and this match the following question is related with authors and their idea which were asked in previous paper of UGC-NET exams (Journalism and Mass Communication). It contains authors like ‘Donald Shaw and Maxwell McCombs, Antonio Gramsci, Wilbur Schramm, George Gerbner’ and their concepts on ‘Priming, Coercion and consent, Frames of reference, Resonance’. Match the following question with short explanation is designed in order to make you understand better. So that you do not need to go to other places for search.

S. no. Authors Concept/Terms
1. Donald Shaw and Maxwell McCombs Priming
2. Antonio Gramsci Coercion and consent
3. Wilbur Schramm Frames of reference
4. George Gerbner Resonance


Max McCombs and Donald Shaw

  • Agenda-setting theory was formally developed by Max McCombs and Donald Shaw in a study on the 1968 American presidential election1.
  • The priming theory states that media images stimulate related thoughts in the minds of audience members2.


  • Antonio Francesco Gramsci was an Italian Marxist philosopher and communist politician3.
  • He wrote on political theory, sociology and linguistics.
  • Gramsci is best known for his theory of cultural hegemony, which describes how the state and ruling capitalist class – the bourgeoisie – use cultural institutions to maintain power in capitalist societies3
  • Gramsci introduces the concept of hegemony, or ideological and moral leadership of society, to explain how the ruling-class maintains their dominance and influence over society4.
  • Under the concept of hegemony, Gramsci sees the ruling-class maintaining its dominance cover society in two different ways: coercion and consent.
  • Coercion- It uses the army, the police, prisons and courts of the capitalist state to force other classes to accept its role; Consent- It uses ideas and values to persuade the subordinate class that its rule is legitimate4.

Wibur Schramm

  • Wilbur Schramm introduced the concept of Interpreter.
  • Wilbur Schramm is considered the founder of the field of Communication Studies5. 
  • One contribution Schramm made was to consider the fields of experience of the sender and receiver. The sender encodes the message, based upon the sender’s field of experience. The user’s field of experience guides decoding6.
  • Another one of Schramm’s models introduced the idea of feedback from the receiver to the sender. In this model, communication becomes a continuous process of messages and feedback. This model allows for interaction6.
  • Schramm provided the additional notion of a “field of experience,” or the psychological frame of reference; this refers to the type of orientation or attitudes which interactants maintain toward each other7.
  • In Mass Media and National Development (1964) Schramm said that mass media in developing countries needed to play three roles—those of watchdog, policy maker, and teacher for change and modernization5.

George Gerbner

  • George Gerbner was the founder of cultivation theory.
  • He coined the phrase “mean world syndrome” to describe the fact that people who watch large amounts of television are more likely to perceive the world as a dangerous and frightening place8.
  • Resonance is the process by which heavy viewing of television affects viewers that have first-handed experience of violence9.
  • Resonance occurs when things viewed on television are congruent with the actual lived realities of viewers10


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