Match the following- Series 1- Authors & Countries (Mass Communication)

It is already solved questions and this match the following question is related with authors and countries which were asked in previous paper of UGC-NET exams (Journalism and Mass Communication). It contains authors like CS Pierce, Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes and Stuart Hall. This match the following question with short explanation is designed in order to make you understand better. So that you do not need to go to other places for search.

Match the following Series-1

S. no. Authors Countries
1. CS Pierce The United States of America
2. Ferdinand de Saussure Switzerland
3. Roland Barthes France
4. Stuart Hall Great Britain


CS Pierce1

  • Charles Sanders Peirce was an American philosopher who is sometimes known as ‘’the father of pragmatism’’.
  • He was not only the philosopher but also the logician, mathematician, and scientist.
  • His contribution are also towards scientific methodology, semiotics and for his founding of pragmatism as a method of research.
  • Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition which means thinking about solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than having fixed or unchanging ideas.

2. Ferdinand de Saussure

  • Saussure was a Swiss linguist and semiotician and founder of modern linguistics.
  • His ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in both linguistics and semiology in the 20th century2.
  • He argued that meaning is created inside language in the relations of difference between its parts3.
  • Saussure defines semiology as the study of signs, and says that linguistics is a part of semiology. He maintains that written language exists for the purpose of representing spoken language. A written word is an image of a vocal sign. Saussure argues that language is a structured system of arbitrary signs4.

3. Roland Barthes

  • Roland Barthes was a French literary theorist, philosopher, critic, and semiotician.
  • He influenced the development of many schools of theory, including structuralism, semiotics, social theory, design theory, anthropology, and post-structuralism5.
  • His work left an impression on the intellectual movements of Structuralism and Post-Structuralism.
  • ‘Anchorage’ is a process of applying text in sort of a label type of way to an image. So the text fixes the meaning of an image. Think of an anchor holding the meaning6.
  • ‘Relay’ is the reciprocal relation between text and picture or between a picture and another in that each contributes its own part of the overall message. Barthes used the term relay to describe text/image relationship which was ‘complementary’ instancing cartoons, comic strips and narrative films7.
  • The principal function of anchorage is ideological: the text directs the reader through the signifieds of the image (towards a meaning chosen in advance). In RELAY the text and the image are in a complementary relationship8.

4. Stuart Hall

  • Stuart Hall was a Jamaican-born British Marxist sociologist, cultural theorist and political activist. He was one of the founding figures of the school of thought is now known as British Cultural Studies or The Birmingham School of Cultural Studies9.
  • He is known for the founder of New Left Review, Articulation, Encoding/decoding model of communication, Reception theory9.


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