What are the differences between English newspapers and language newspapers?
Answer- The differences between English newspapers and language newspapers are the following-
- English newspapers are published in the English language only whereas regional language published in various regional languages like Gujarati, Bengali, Malayalam, Marathi, etc.
- English papers are only published in major towns and cities whereas regional newspapers published even in the interior of the villages.
- Everyone cannot read English newspapers whereas, in the case of regional papers, almost everyone can read.
- English dailies have less penetration or impact in rural areas whereas regional papers have more penetration.
- English papers follow the British tradition while the language papers have evolved their own style and methods.
- More money is generated from advertisements in English papers as they circulate amongst people with better purchasing power. As compared to English paper, language papers do not get the same amount of revenue from advertisements.
- English papers are more colorful and flamboyant whereas language papers adopt a simple style.
What could be the reasons for the boom of newspapers in India?
Answer- Factors that have contributed to this boom of newspapers in India are-
- Rise in literacy rate: due to the steady rise in literacy rates in all the states of our country, more and more people are being initiated into the world of reading books, newspapers, and periodicals.
- Expansion of the middle class: As the Indian middle class expands, it leads to an increase in the circulation of newspapers. When a household makes economic and educational progress, they consider it a status symbol to subscribe to a newspaper.
- Untapped market: India still has an estimated 350 million people who can read and write but do not buy any newspaper. So there is a vast segment that is still untapped as far as newspaper circulation is considered. More and more newspapers are trying to woo this section.
- Education of women: It is often said that if you educate a woman you are educating the next generation. In India, women are getting more and more educated and this, in turn, leads to the action of children. Awareness also increases along with this. It contributes a lot to the growth of readership.
- Technological advancement: In earlier days, starting a newspaper publication or establishment of a new edition was a costly affair. As technology has improved, it became easier for newspapers to start new editions. This has led to an expansion of newspapers even into small cities and towns.
- Better purchasing power: Improvement in the purchasing power of the common man is another factor which helped in the growth of newspapers. Coupled with this, newspapers also started reducing their prices. So it became affordable for the common man.
- Aggressive marketing: Newspapers and periodicals are adopting aggressive marketing strategies to attract more readers. They offer various schemes with gifts to attract subscribers. They also offer concessions for long term subscriptions. All these have resulted in an increase of newspaper sales.
- Political awareness: As people become more and more aware of political developments, they show interest in reading newspapers. In India, sections of people who had earlier not shown much interest in political activities are now realizing their rights as citizens and are becoming more vigilant about their social responsibilities.
Give five reasons for the growth of language newspapers in India.
Answer- There are several reasons for the growth of language newspapers in India are the following:-
- The rise and emergence of language media as a major force
- The advancement of the rural mass has resulted in the growth of language newspapers.
- An experiment by the newspaper of covering local news with prominence gave a big boost to their circulation.
- Newspapers started covering issues that we’re concerned with the ordinary people.
- Starting of multiple editions was another factor that resulted in the growth of the language press.
- The boom in advertising also helped in the growth of the language press. For attracting them, advertisers were forced to give advertisements in local papers. This, in turn, resulted in an increase in revenue for the language press.
What are multiple editions?
Answer- Earlier newspapers were confined to state capital cities only. But as more and more potential readers emerged from other areas, newspaper owners started editions from even district centers. Thus multiple editions of newspapers were brought out. So we can say that the Starting of multiple editions was another factor that resulted in the growth of the language press.
Name some books on the growth of newspapers in India.
- Robin Jeffrey in his book, “India’s Newspaper Revolution” published in 2000.
- “A History of Press in India” by S. Natarajan,
- “Journalism in Modern India” by Ronald E Wolseley,
- “Newspaper Circulations in India, 1998-2000” by Naresh Khanna
- “Journalism and Politics” by M. Chalapathi Rau
Name the organizations which regularly conduct studies on newspapers in India.
Answer- The Registrar of Newspapers of India (RNI), the National Readership Council of India (NRCI) and the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) are some of the organizations which regularly conduct studies on newspapers in India.
- The Registrar of Newspapers of India (RNI): The government of India established the RNI in 1956 on the recommendation of the First Press Commission. The RNI oversees the activities of the press in India. They annually publish Press in India reports which give an idea of circulation as well as readership figures. As per the advertisement policy of the government of India for the release of government advertisements, a newspaper should have a minimum circulation of 2000 copies.
- The Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC): is not a government organization. It is a non-profit association established in 1948 consisting of publishers and advertisers. Its headquarters is in Bombay. The Audit Bureau of Circulation has established the National Readership Studies Council (NRSC) which is constituted by the Advertising Association of India, ABC, and Indian News Paper Society. They conduct readership surveys of newspapers and weeklies in India every six months. It also issues certificates of circulation once in six months.
Mention some unhealthy trends in the newspaper industry.
Answer- The following unhealthy trends in the newspaper industry are-
- Price wars: – One Newspaper reduces the price resulting in an increase in its circulation. One good outcome of this price war is that readers benefit from reduced prices, but small and medium newspapers suffer because they cannot afford to have price cuts to increase circulation.
- Excessive dependence on advertisement: – Government advertisements account for more than 50 percent of all advertisements in Indian papers. This monetary incentive makes newspapers to limit criticism of government policies.
- Media excesses and media trials:- There are instances of media excesses and media trials, fake sting operations, criminal trespassing of privacy, glamorization of criminals and mafia dons, promotion of hatred among communities and inflaming of raw emotions.
- Offering gifts and concession coupons: – Media houses sometimes try to woo more subscribers by offering gifts and concession coupons.