Journalism and Mass Communication\n\n\n\n1. Who formulated the concept of\npositivism?\n\n\n\n\nBharat Muni\n\n\n\nMartin Luther\n\n\n\nJulia Kresteva\n\n\n\nAugust Comte\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Auguste Comte was the father of positivism and inventor of the term sociology. In sociology, Positivism is the view that social phenomena such as human social behaviour and how societies are structured ought to be studied using only the methods of the natural science. \n\n\n\n2. What does APA Stands for?\n\n\n\n\nAfrican psychological Association\n\n\n\nAsian psychological Association\n\n\n\nAmerican psychological Association\n\n\n\nAustralian psychological Association\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- APA format is commonly used to cite sources in psychology, education, and the social sciences. The APA style originated in a 1929 article published in Psychological Bulletin that laid out the basic guidelines. \n\n\n\n3. The five stages of grief are denial,\nanger, bargaining, depression and acceptance (Gaurav-Sehgal, 2010, p 45-60)\u2019 is\nan example of \n\n\n\n\nFootnote citation\n\n\n\nBoth (A) and (C)\n\n\n\nParenthetical referencing\n\n\n\nNone of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Parenthetic referencing is also known as Harvard refrencing. Parenthetical\ncitations are often used in MLA format, APA format, and many other styles.\nFootnotes are often used in Chicago format citations. Parenthetical citations\nare placed directly after the quote or paraphrase. Parenthetical citation\nincludes the last name of the original author and the page number that the\ninformation was found3. \n\n\n\nExample of\nfootnote citation- \u2018The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining,\ndepression and acceptance.\u2019\n\n\n\nNotice the small, superscript\nnumber 1 next to the quote above. On bottom of the page, the reader would find\nthe number 1, and next it they\u2019ll see the footnote.\n\n\n\n4. Who coined the term \u2018Development\nCommunication\u2019?\n\n\n\n\nRostow\n\n\n\nLippman\n\n\n\nNora C Quebrel\n\n\n\nLerner\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Nora C Quebral is often referred as \u2018\u2019mother of development\ncommunication\u2019\u2019. Her latest revision definition for development communication\nis as \u2018the art and science of human\ncommunication linked to a society\u2019s planned transformation from a state of\npoverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity\nand the larger unfolding of individual potential4.\n\n\n\n5. Recce Survey generally is\u2026.\n\n\n\n\nPre shoot location survey for film\n\n\n\nHusband up survey\n\n\n\nUncharted survey\n\n\n\nClaim survey for vehicles\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- A pre filming visit to a location to determine its suitability for\nshooting, including access to necessary facilities and assessment of any\npotential lighting5.\n\n\n\n6. Applied research is directed towards\n\n\n\n\nReal time problems\n\n\n\nAction oriented research\n\n\n\nProblem solving\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Applied research is a methodology used to solve a specific, practical problem of an individual or group. It aims at finding solution for an immediate problem facing a society, or an industrial\/business organisation.\n\n\n\n7. What is the full form of PDF?\n\n\n\n\nPlausible Document Format\n\n\n\nPredestined Document Format\n\n\n\nPrinted Document Format\n\n\n\nPortable Document Format\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The Portable Document Format is a file format developed by Adobe in\nthe 1990s7.\n\n\n\n8. Vox Pops are\u2026.\n\n\n\n\nStreet interviews\n\n\n\nRoad interviews\n\n\n\nBazaar interviews\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- it\u2019s literally meaning is \u2018Voice of people.\u2019 It can be done anywhere\nstreet, road, and Bazaar etc. In Journalism, Vox Pops or man on the street\nrefers to short interviews with members of the public8.\n\n\n\n9. \u2026\u2026. From theory leads to hypothesis\n\n\n\n\nInduction\n\n\n\nLogical Deduction\n\n\n\nObservation\n\n\n\nDeduction\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements to reach a logically certain conclusion.\n\n\n\n10. Which structure is best suited for\nanecdotal feature?\n\n\n\n\nLinked Boxes\n\n\n\nNeck of the Vase\n\n\n\nHourglass\n\n\n\nInverted Pyramid\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Anecdotal information is not based on facts or careful study. Neck\nof the Vase structure is best suited for anecdotal feature.\n\n\n\n11. The concept of \u2018Aura\u2019 pertains to \n\n\n\n\nKarl Marx\n\n\n\nHabermas\n\n\n\nWalter Benjamin\n\n\n\nBharat Muni\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Aura is a quality integral to an artwork that cannot be communicated through mechanical reproduction techniques \u2013 such as photography. The term was used by Walter Benjamin in his influential 1936 essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.\n\n\n\n12. Control Analysis is a part of\u2026\u2026.\n\n\n\n\nPropaganda model\n\n\n\nRhetoric model\n\n\n\nBucket Model\n\n\n\nInteractive Model\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- All over the world, the media is used to control and for propaganda purposes. The Propaganda model of media control was introduced by Edward. S. Herman and Noam Chomsky in their book \u2018Manufacturing Consent \u2013 The Political Economy of the Mass Media\u2019.\n\n\n\n13. Spandrel is related to\n\n\n\n\nNoam Chomsky\n\n\n\nLanguage Faculty\n\n\n\nExaptation\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The idea that language was a spandrel, a term coined by Gould, flew in the face of natural selection. In fact, Gould and Chomsky pose the theory that many human behaviors are spandrels. These various spandrels came about because of a process Darwin called "pre-adaptation," which is now known as exaptation.\n\n\n\n14. Short summary of a technical report is called\n\n\n\n\nResearch Abstract\n\n\n\nPublication\n\n\n\nArticle\n\n\n\nPrecis\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.\n\n\n\n15. What is an example of contraction?\n\n\n\n\nAd\n\n\n\nSubheads\n\n\n\nVox Pop\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Contractions help to save space when preparing advertisements, slogans, and other written works that must be short and to the point.\n\n\n\n16. \u2018\u2019The first way to get to know the Indians is to become like one of them; and it is by learning their language that we will become their fellow citizens.\u2019\u2019 This statements pertains to which method?\n\n\n\n\nParticipant Observation\n\n\n\nLife History\n\n\n\nEthnography\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research and ethnography15. Life history interviewing is a qualitative method of data collection where people are asked to document their life over a period of time.\n\n\n\n17. Who was a rhetor?\n\n\n\n\nAristotle\n\n\n\nNehru\n\n\n\nChanakya\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation-\u00a0 Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The definition of a rhetor is a great speaker, or a teacher of rhetoric or public speaking.\n\n\n\n18. All Surveys are essentially \n\n\n\n\nExplanatory\n\n\n\nCommunal\n\n\n\nInterdisciplinary\n\n\n\nNarrative\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Questions in survey are from core areas and interdisciplinary.\n\n\n\n19. Camera pivoting right or left is known as\u2026..\n\n\n\n\nTilt\n\n\n\nZoom\n\n\n\nPan\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- A pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left and right about a central axis. i.e. mounted in a fixed location on a tripod or shoulder, rather than a dolly-like movement in which the entire mounting system moves.\n\n\n\n20. Heart shaped pattern is described by\u2026.\n\n\n\n\nCardioid Microphone\n\n\n\nHyper cardioids mikes\n\n\n\nSuper cardioids mikes\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- A micro phone with a cardoid pick-up pattern hears sound best from\nthe front and actively rejects sound from behind. This mic is heart-shaped pickup pattern. A Supercardioid\npolar pattern is more directional than Cardioid; Hypercardioid even more so.\nUnlike Cardioid, both of these polar patterns have sensitive rear lobes\n(smaller in the Supercardioid) that pick up sound, which can make positioning.\n\n\n\n21. Device that converts one form of energy into another is\u2026.\n\n\n\n\nDepth of field\n\n\n\nFlowchart\n\n\n\nTransducer\n\n\n\nNeutral Density\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another.\n\n\n\n22. Aspect ratio is\u2026\n\n\n\n\nShape of frame\n\n\n\nRelationship of width to height \n\n\n\nProportion of frame\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is commonly expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9.\n\n\n\n23. Decibel is\u2026.\n\n\n\n\nMeasurement of graphics\n\n\n\nUnit of loudness\n\n\n\nFeedback\n\n\n\nNone of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The decibel (abbreviated dB) is the unit used to measure the\nintensity of a sound21.\n\n\n\n24. Sounds or interviews recorded on location are called\u2026\u2026\n\n\n\n\nDiffusion of Innovation \n\n\n\nZoom\n\n\n\nActuality\n\n\n\nAston\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Actuality:- In radio, the sound of something specifically audio material recorded out of the studio on location, either voices or other sounds such as ambient noise. Sometimes called a sound bite. In television sometimes called sync.\n\n\n\n25. Catchline of a broadcast story is called\u2026\u2026\n\n\n\n\nSupers\n\n\n\nCool edit pro\n\n\n\nOver to Shoulder\n\n\n\nSlug\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Slug lines direct our attention to what's important within a scene. They add punch, and can be used to heighten the pacing. Camera angles written as slug lines, such as \u201cREVERSE SHOT,\u201d are usually superfluous.\n\n\n\n26. When one source is faded up and the other is faded out, this is called\u2026\n\n\n\n\nZoom\n\n\n\nPre-fade\n\n\n\nPost-fade\n\n\n\nCross-fade \n\n\n\n\n27. In which microphone, the diaphragm is replaced with the plate of electrically charged capacitor?\n\n\n\n\nCondenser\n\n\n\nRibbon \n\n\n\nDynamic\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation-\u00a0 Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic.\n\n\n\n28. Who authored \u2018The Passing of the Traditional Society?\n\n\n\n\nEvert Rogers\n\n\n\nAdam Smith\n\n\n\nDaniel Lerner\n\n\n\nWalt Whitman Rostow\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- This important\nbook reports on and interprets studies implemented primarily during 1950, in\nsix Middle East Arab countries: Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iran25.\n\n\n\n29. Yakshagana, a folk theatre form, belongs to which state?\n\n\n\n\nMaharashtra\n\n\n\nKerala\n\n\n\nAssam\n\n\n\nKarnatka\n\n\n\n\n30. Who wote \u2018A theology of Liberation?\u2019\n\n\n\n\nPaulo Frere\n\n\n\nAugasto Boal\n\n\n\nGustavo Gutierrez\n\n\n\nNoam Chomsky\n\n\n\n\nExplanation-\u00a0 A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, Salvation (1971), explains his notion of Christian poverty as an act of loving solidarity with the poor as well as a liberatory protest against poverty.\n\n\n\n31. Those who are reluctant to adopt modernisation process are called \n\n\n\n\nLaggards\n\n\n\nAdopters\n\n\n\nEarly Majority\n\n\n\nLate Majority\n\n\n\n\nExplanation-\u00a0 Laggards are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents. Laggards typically tend to be focused on "traditions", lowest social status, lowest financial liquidity, oldest among adopters, and in contact with only family and close friends.\n\n\n\n32. Daniel Lerner is credited to have introduced the term\n\n\n\n\nHeterophily \n\n\n\nHomophily\n\n\n\nMobility Multipliers\n\n\n\nMagic Multipliers\n\n\n\n\nExplanation-\u00a0 Daniel Lerner\u00a0termed mass media \u00a0as mobility of multipliers and Wilbur Schramm considers them to be magic multipliers.\n\n\n\n33. \u2018Spect-actor\u2019 was coined by\n\n\n\n\nAugusto Boal\n\n\n\nAristotle\n\n\n\nPaulo Cohelo\n\n\n\nPlato\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- This is a term created by Augusto Boal to describe those engaged in Forum theatre. It refers to the dual role of those involved in the process as both spectator and actor, as they both observe and create dramatic meaning and action in any performance.\n\n\n\n34. \u2018Wealth of Nations\u2019 was authored by\n\n\n\n\nAdam Smith\n\n\n\nRichardo\n\n\n\nKarl Marx\n\n\n\nPaulo Friere\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The book 'Wealth of Nation's touches upon such broad topics as the\u00a0division of labour, productivity, and\u00a0free markets.\n\n\n\n35. \u2018As bits and watts increases in mass production and consumption, life is diminished under modernised poverty.\u2019 \u2018Who made this statement?\n\n\n\n\nAbraham Maslowe\n\n\n\nKarl Marx\n\n\n\nMajid Tehranian\n\n\n\nGramsci\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- 'Meta-Theory\nof Communication' presented by Majid Tehranian.\n\n\n\n36. Which among the following is not one of the features of Interpersonal Communication?\n\n\n\n\nPhatic Conversation\n\n\n\nTriadic Communication\n\n\n\nDyadic Communication\n\n\n\nClassroom Discussion\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Classroom Discussion is a group communication.\n\n\n\nPhatic communication is verbal or non-verbal communication that has a social function, such as to start a conversation, greet someone, or say goodbye, rather than an informative function.\n\n\n\nTriadic communication- Triadic is a\ncommunication between three or more persons.\n\n\n\nDyadic Communication-The term\n'Dyadic communication', in general refers to an interaction between two people32.\n\n\n\n37. Haptics relates to\n\n\n\n\nBody movements\n\n\n\nTouch\n\n\n\nParanormal language\n\n\n\nEye Movement\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- \u201chaptic\u201d means anything relating to the sense of touch.\n\n\n\n38. What can be an example of didactic reportage?\n\n\n\n\nAnti tobacco campaign \n\n\n\nBoth of these\n\n\n\nPropaganda on demonetisation\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Reportage is often regarded as the most exalted\nform of journalism, yet it is, after all, no more than writing that is\nconcerned with the reporting of news or events33.\n\n\n\n39. A hole through which light travels is called\n\n\n\n\nTripod\n\n\n\nConsole\n\n\n\nAperture\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- An aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.\u00a0\n\n\n\n40. Who coined the term \u2018Mimesis?\n\n\n\n\nHerbert Marcuse\n\n\n\nCicero\n\n\n\nAristotle\n\n\n\nPlato\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Mimesis is a Greek term that means imitation. Plato divides imitation by medium (words, paint, marble, etc.). He further divides the verbal techniques of imitation into pure imitation or mimesis, in which an actor impersonates a character on stage, and diegesis, or narration, in which a narrator speaks in the third person about events.\n\n\n\n41. XML stands for?\n\n\n\n\nExtensible Markup Language\n\n\n\nExtensible Mobile Lexicon\n\n\n\nX-Mas Markup Language\n\n\n\nAll of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML is a markup language much like HTML. XML was designed to store and transport data.\u00a0\n\n\n\n42. Which is an example of Intra-personal Communication?\n\n\n\n\nDialogue\n\n\n\nMeditation\n\n\n\nPresentation\n\n\n\nLecture\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Intra is\na prefix meaning "within"; something that is\n"intrapersonal" takes place inside one individual37. \n\n\n\n43. Who introduced the concept of Mobile Privatization?\n\n\n\n\nBarthes\n\n\n\nAdorno\n\n\n\nRaymond Williams\n\n\n\nWalter Benjamin\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Raymond Williams\u00a0developed the\u00a0concept of mobile privatization\u00a0as part of his criticism of the failings of technological determinism and its role in accounts of media history. It plays a central role in his alternative social shaping account of the development of radio and television broadcasting.\n\n\n\n44. Deconstruction is associated with\n\n\n\n\nDerrida\n\n\n\nGramsci\n\n\n\nChomsky\n\n\n\nNone of these\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Jacques Derrida was an Algerian-born French philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.\n\n\n\n45. Which communication model has entropy and redundancy?\n\n\n\n\nMathematical\n\n\n\nRhetoric\n\n\n\nSMCR\n\n\n\nBucket\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The concept of information entropy was introduced\nby Claude Shannon in his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of\nCommunication".\n\n\n\nEntropy: refers to messages which convey highly unpredictable information to the receiver. redundancy: refers to messages which convey highly predictable information to the receiver.\n\n\n\n46. Who introduced the concept of Interpreter?\n\n\n\n\nSchramm\n\n\n\nCantril and Lazarsfeld\n\n\n\nBerlo\n\n\n\nLasswell\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- One contribution Schramm made was to consider the fields of experience of the sender and receiver. The sender encodes the message, based upon the sender\u2019s field of experience. The user\u2019s field of experience guides decoding.\n\n\n\n47. Who conceptualised myth as second order of signification?\n\n\n\n\nBarthes \n\n\n\nLacan\n\n\n\nFreud\n\n\n\nSaussure\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- If connotation is the second order meaning of the signifier, the MYTH IS THE SECOND ORDER MEANING OF THE SIGNIFIED. \n\n\n\nBarthwal conceptualised myth as second order of\nsignification.\n\n\n\n48. National Geographic Magazine is example of which printing process?\n\n\n\n\nLetterpress\n\n\n\nLithography\n\n\n\nSilk\n\n\n\nGravure\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Like\u00a0flexography, gravure printing is often used for high-volume printing of packaging, wallpaper and gift wrap. Although less common, gravure printing may also be used for printing\u00a0magazines, greeting cards, and high-volume advertising pieces.\n\n\n\n49. Who introduced the concept of deviant group in the helix of communication?\n\n\n\n\nFrank Dance\n\n\n\nDavid Berlo\n\n\n\nElisabeth Neomann\n\n\n\nWestley and McLean\n\n\n\n\n50. The Salim Ali Bird sanctuary is located at?\n\n\n\n\nAnakkati\n\n\n\nKalakkad\n\n\n\nPondicherry\n\n\n\nGoa\n\n\n\n\n51. Non-stick cooking utensils are coated with\n\n\n\n\nTeflon (PTEE)\n\n\n\nPolystyrene\n\n\n\nBlack paint\n\n\n\nPVC\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Teflon (PTFE-Polytetrafluoroethylene) is used as a\u00a0non-stick\u00a0coating\u00a0for pans and other cookware. It is nonreactive.\n\n\n\n52. Who founded the Haryank Dynasty in Magadha?\n\n\n\n\nAjatashatru\n\n\n\nBimbisara\n\n\n\nUdayabhadra\n\n\n\nNone of the above\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- The first king of Magadha dynasty was Bimbisara founded the Haryanka dynasty whose capital was Rajagriha, later Pataliputra.\n\n\n\n53. The idea of Directive Principles of state policy in the constitution of India has been borrowed from \n\n\n\n\nThe Japanese Constitution\n\n\n\nThe Irish Constitution\n\n\n\nThe French Constitution\n\n\n\nThe Canadian Constitution\n\n\n\n\n54. Which of the following is not an operating system?\n\n\n\n\nLinux\n\n\n\nWindows\n\n\n\nDOS\n\n\n\nOracle\n\n\n\n\n55. Identify the largest port of India\n\n\n\n\nMumbai Port\n\n\n\nKandla Port\n\n\n\nOkha Port\n\n\n\nKolkata Port\n\n\n\n\n56. Film and Television Institute of India is located at\n\n\n\n\nPerampur (Tamilnadu)\n\n\n\nPune\n\n\n\nPimpri \n\n\n\nRajkot\n\n\n\n\nFTII is a member of the International Liaison Centre of Schools of Cinema and Television (CILECT)\n\n\n\n57. Night Blindness is cause by lack of which vitamin?\n\n\n\n\nVitamin C\n\n\n\nVitamin D\n\n\n\nVitamin A\n\n\n\nVitamin B\n\n\n\n\n58. Who among the following invented the smallpox vaccine?\n\n\n\n\nRobert Hooke\n\n\n\nLouis Pasteur\n\n\n\nRobert Koch\n\n\n\nEdward Jenner\n\n\n\n\n59. Which of the following is correct?\n\n\n\n\nResearch is scientific and systematic approach to formulate a problem and finds its solution.\n\n\n\nResearch is not just collection of information on a specific, but to analyse it.\n\n\n\nResearch is not just writing a report on a well-known subject.\n\n\n\nAll of the above\n\n\n\n\n60. A research which involves obtaining non-numerical data through open-ended questions and conversational communication is\n\n\n\n\nQuantitative research\n\n\n\nQualitative research\n\n\n\nAnalytical research\n\n\n\nSemi-quantitative research\n\n\n\n\n61. Post positivism is a stance where \n\n\n\n\nA theory of a researcher can influence the observation\n\n\n\nResearcher and researched object\/event\/person are independent\n\n\n\nThe information derived from sensory experience is interpreted through reason and logic is an exclusive source of all certain knowledge\n\n\n\nReality is evidence based and can be mathematically interpreted through reason and logic is an exclusive source of all certain knowledge.\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Positivists believe that the researcher and the researched person are independent of each other, post positivists accept that theories, background, knowledge and values of the researcher can influence what is observed.\n\n\n\n62. Experimental research is used where\n\n\n\n\nThere is time priority in a casual relationship.\n\n\n\nThere is consistency in a casual relationship.\n\n\n\nThe magnitude of correlation is high.\n\n\n\nAll the above.\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Experimental research is any research conducted with a scientific approach, where a set of variables are kept constant while the other set of variables are being measured as the subject of experiment.\n\n\n\n63. In research, moving from broader generalisation and theories to specific observation can be achieved by\n\n\n\n\nDeducting reasoning\n\n\n\nInductive reasoning\n\n\n\nObservation\n\n\n\nExperience\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- A deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.\n\n\n\n64. In empirical approach a decision is made by\n\n\n\n\nDirect observation and experimentation\n\n\n\nFeelings, hunches and instinct\n\n\n\nOpinions of experienced people\n\n\n\nSpeculation based on some information\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Empirical\napproach refers to the scientific method of inquiry and observation through experiments.\n\n\n\n65. Which of the following statements collecting the data by survey is false?\n\n\n\n\nPersonal interview have the flexibility of restructuring the questionnaire\n\n\n\nData collection by personal interview can controlled samples.\n\n\n\nIn personal interview the interviewer can collect additional information about the environment of the person interviewed.\n\n\n\nPersonal interview method is always cheap method and the respondents always give unbiased information.\n\n\n\n\n66. In an experimental research, the dependent variable is\n\n\n\n\nA measure of the effect of the independent variable\n\n\n\nA factor that is controlled and manipulated by the researcher\n\n\n\nA variable which can take only specific values in the range of values.\n\n\n\nA variable which is always dependent on the researcher himself.\n\n\n\n\n67. Rating something as \u2018\u2019helpful\u2019\u2019 and \u2018\u2019not helpful\u2019\u2019 is an example of\n\n\n\n\nQuantitative variable\n\n\n\nContinuous variable\n\n\n\nDiscontinuous variable\n\n\n\nCategorical variable\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Categorical variables are qualitative data in which the values are assigned to a set of distinct groups or categories. These groups may consist of alphabetic (e.g., male, female) or numeric labels (e.g., male = 0, female = 1) that do not contain mathematical information beyond the frequency counts related to group membership. Instead, categorical variables often provide valuable social-oriented information that is not quantitative by nature (e.g., hair color, religion, ethnic group).\n\n\n\n68. Participant bias can be controlled by\n\n\n\n\nThe double blind technique\n\n\n\nBlind technique\n\n\n\nPartial blind technique\n\n\n\nAll the above\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- \n\n\n\n\nA double-blind study is one in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment. This procedure is utilized to prevent bias in research results.\n\n\n\nA single-blind study in which the experimenters are aware of which participants are receiving the treatment while the participants remain unaware50.\n\n\n\nA partial blind study in which investigator assessing the outcome is aware of the assignment in at least one treatment group but unaware of the treatment assignment(s) in one or more other treatment groups.\n\n\n\n\n69. Temperature measured in (degree Celsius) is\n\n\n\n\nRatio scale\n\n\n\nNominal scale\n\n\n\nInterval scale\n\n\n\nOrdinal scale\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- because the difference between each value is the same. For example, the difference between 60 and 50 degrees is a measurable 10 degrees, as is the difference between 80 and 70 degrees.\n\n\n\n70. Which of the tests are necessary to confirm a good measurement?\n\n\n\n\nTest of validity\n\n\n\nTest of reliability\n\n\n\nTest of practicality\n\n\n\nAll of the above\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- \n\n\n\n\nPracticality- It refers to the economy of time, effort and money in testing.\n\n\n\nValidity- The term validity refers to whether or not a test measures what it intends to measure. \n\n\n\nReliability- Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. Psychologists consider three types of consistency: over time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across different researchers (inter-rater reliability).\n\n\n\n\n71. Which of the analysis is appropriate for a researcher if he has only one dependent variable that cannot be measured but can be classified into different categories?\n\n\n\n\nMultiple regression analysis\n\n\n\nMultiple discriminant analysis\n\n\n\nCanonical analysis\n\n\n\nMultivariate analysis of variance\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- \n\n\n\n\nMDA technique reduces the differences between some variables so that they can be classified in a set number of broad groups, which can then be compared to another variable.\n\n\n\nCanonical correlation analysis is a method for exploring the relationships between two multivariate sets of variables (vectors), all measured on the same individual. Consider, as an example, variables related to exercise and health55.\n\n\n\n\n72. Which of the following is used for organising and manipulating the data?\n\n\n\n\nMS Power Point\n\n\n\nGoogle Scholar\n\n\n\nGoogle Sheets\n\n\n\nLatex\n\n\n\n\n73. A doctoral thesis must have \n\n\n\n\nSelecting references\n\n\n\nExhaustive references\n\n\n\nNo references\n\n\n\nQuotations\n\n\n\n\n74. I.I.Sc stands for\n\n\n\n\nIndian Institute of Science\n\n\n\nIndian Institute of Statistics\n\n\n\nIndian Institute of Indian Science\n\n\n\nInternational Institute of Science\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Indian Institute of Science (IISc) located in Bangalore, India, is a public institute for research and higher education in science, engineering, design, and management.\n\n\n\n75. A per the UGC regulations on prevention of plagiarism, the percentage similarities for which the student registration for a programme will be cancelled is\n\n\n\n\n15%\n\n\n\n30%\n\n\n\n45%\n\n\n\n60%\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- \n\n\n\nPlagiarism Disciplinary Authority (PDA) of the HEI, based on\nrecommendations of the\nAcademic Misconduct Panel (AMP), shall impose penalty considering the severiq'\nof the\nPlagiarism57.\ni. Level 1: Similarities above 4o% - Such student shall not be given\nany\nmark and\/or credit for the plagiarized script and shall be asked to submit a\nrevised\nscript within a stipulated time period not exceeding 6 months.\nii. Level 2: Similarities above to 6o% - Such\nstudent shall not be given any\nmark and\/or credit for the plagiarized script and shall be asked to submit a\nrevised\nscript after a time period of one year but not exceeding eighteen months.\niii. Level 3: Similarities above 6o% -Such student shall not be given\nany mark\nand\/or credit for the plagiarized script and his\/her registration for that course to be\ncancelled.\n\n\n\n76. Research misconduct include \n\n\n\n\nHonest error\n\n\n\nDifference of opinion\n\n\n\nFabrication of data\n\n\n\nCiting relevant sources of knowledge\/information\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Research misconduct\u00a0is defined as fabrication, falsification and plagiarism, and does not\u00a0include\u00a0honest error or differences of opinion.\n\n\n\n77. DOI stands for\n\n\n\n\nDigitized Objects in Internet\n\n\n\nDigital Object Identifier\n\n\n\nDigital Online-resource Identifier\n\n\n\nDigitization of Object for Identification\n\n\n\n\nExplanation\n\n\n\nDOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos59.\n\n\n\n78. Experiments involving animals is not acceptable if\n\n\n\n\nAnimal suffering is minimum in all experiments\n\n\n\nHuman benefits are gained which could not be obtained by using other methods\n\n\n\nHuman benefits are gained which otherwise could only be gained by other expensive methods\n\n\n\nIf one can be sure about the usefulness of the research outcome\n\n\n\n\n79. Literature review helps in\n\n\n\n\nKnowing the state-of-the-art in a specific subject\n\n\n\nAvoiding incidental plagiarism\n\n\n\nSharpen the research focus\n\n\n\nAll the above\n\n\n\n\n80. Sodhganga is\n\n\n\n\nA reservoir of Indian thesis\n\n\n\nA reservoir of e-journals\n\n\n\nA repository of international thesis\n\n\n\nNone of the above\n\n\n\n\n81. Machine learning is the\n\n\n\n\nScientific study of algorithms and statistical models used to effectively perform a specific task using patterns and inferences\n\n\n\nUnderstandings the working principle of machines\n\n\n\nMaking machines for learning aid applications\n\n\n\nNone of the above\n\n\n\n\n82. Modelling and Simulations will help in\n\n\n\n\nAvoiding costly and time consuming experience\n\n\n\nUnderstanding a mathematical model in more realistic environments\n\n\n\nExploring the behaviour of the system in an articulated way which may not be possible in real world\n\n\n\nAll the above\n\n\n\n\n83. A sample is theoretically the most representative of the total population when we use\n\n\n\n\nRandom selection\n\n\n\nSpecific selection\n\n\n\nSample of convenience\n\n\n\nSample of interest\n\n\n\n\n84. Review of \u2018Godan\u2019 in a newspaper is an example of\n\n\n\n\nNarration\n\n\n\nArgumentation\n\n\n\nExposition\n\n\n\nDescription\n\n\n\n\n85. Find the Suitable antonym of \u2018QUIESCENT\u2019\n\n\n\n\nDormant\n\n\n\nWeak\n\n\n\nActive\n\n\n\nUnconcerned\n\n\n\n\n86. Correct the given sentences:\n\n\n\nHe has received to other message than an\nurgent telegram asking him to rush his village immediately.\n\n\n\n\nAsked him to rush his village\n\n\n\nAsking him to have rush his village\n\n\n\nAsking him to rush to his village\n\n\n\nAsking him rushing at his village\n\n\n\n\n87. Change the speech of the given sentence:\n\n\n\nShe exclaimed with sorrow that was a very\nmiserable plight.\n\n\n\n\nShe said, \u2018\u2019What is mystery it is.\u2019\u2019\n\n\n\nShe said, \u2018\u2019What a miserable sight it is.\u2019\u2019\n\n\n\nShe said, \u2018\u2019What a miserable plight it is.\u2019\u2019\n\n\n\nShe said with sorrow, \u2018\u2019What a pity it is.\u2019\u2019\n\n\n\n\n88. Government by a small group of all powerfull persons\n\n\n\n\nOligarchy\n\n\n\nMonarchy\n\n\n\nDemocracy\n\n\n\nAnarch\n\n\n\n\n89. Give the synonym of \u2018VANGUARD\u2019.\n\n\n\n\nOfficer\n\n\n\nFlag bearer\n\n\n\nRace driver\n\n\n\nPioneer\n\n\n\n\n90. What does phrase \u2018\u2019A man of straw\u2019\u2019 mean?\n\n\n\n\nA man of no substance\n\n\n\nA very active person\n\n\n\nA worthy fellow\n\n\n\nAn unreasonable person\n\n\n\n\n91. Complete the given sentence:\n\n\n\nHe led me\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026the green laws to the palatial\nbuilding.\n\n\n\n\nAcross\n\n\n\nAlong\n\n\n\nUpon\n\n\n\nAbout\n\n\n\n\n92. Select the pair which has the same relationship. SYMPHONY:COMPOSER\n\n\n\n\nFresco: painter\n\n\n\nColours: pallet\n\n\n\nLeonardo: music\n\n\n\nArt: appreciation\n\n\n\n\n93. Choose the correct spelling\n\n\n\n\nAmateur\n\n\n\nAmeteur\n\n\n\nAmatuer\n\n\n\nAmature\n\n\n\n\n94. Select the correct plural form of \u2018Elf\u2019.\n\n\n\n\nElfs\n\n\n\nElves\n\n\n\nEles \n\n\n\nNone of these \n\n\n\n\n95. Two taps A and B can fill a cistern in 28 minutes and 42 minutes respectively. Third tap C can empty it in 42 minutes. If all the three taps are open, the time taken to fill the cistern is\n\n\n\n\n28 minutes\n\n\n\n16.8 minutes\n\n\n\n42 minutes\n\n\n\n12 minutes\n\n\n\n\n96. 9, 12, 11, 14, 13 ? 15\n\n\n\n\n16\n\n\n\n10\n\n\n\n17\n\n\n\n12\n\n\n\n\n97. A student is ranked 13th from right and 8th from left. How many students are there in total?\n\n\n\n\n19\n\n\n\n20\n\n\n\n21\n\n\n\n18\n\n\n\n\n98. The effective annual rate of interest corresponding to a nominal rate of 6% per annum payable half-yearly is\n\n\n\n\n6.07%\n\n\n\n6.08%\n\n\n\n6.09%\n\n\n\n6.06%\n\n\n\n\n99. Three numbers are in the ratio of 3:4 and their L.C.M is 2400. Their H.C.F is \n\n\n\n\n120\n\n\n\n200\n\n\n\n40\n\n\n\n80\n\n\n\n\n100. Who composed\nthe song \u2018\u2019Sare Jahan Se Achha Hindostan Hamara?\n\n\n\n\nFaiz Ahmed Faiz\n\n\n\nBankim Chandra Chatterjee\n\n\n\nMohammad Iqbal\n\n\n\nRabindranath Tagore\n\n\n\n\nExplanation- Mohd. Iqbal is called the "Spiritual Father of Pakistan.